Benign prostatic hypertrophy involves an enlarged prostate and generally manifests in difficulty when emptying the bladder, a reduced blast and an incomplete emptying. The first symptoms may only occur after thirty years. A specialist can make a precise diagnosis and some targeted clinical examinations and, depending on the various clinical situations, recommend specific pharmacological or surgical treatment.

Prostate cancer is a more complicated disease to detect because it is often without symptoms and the man may not experience any particular discomfort. In order to prevent this disease, it is also important to follow a healthy lifestyle and a diet focused on the consumption of fruits, olive oil, and vegetables (tomato, peppers, carrots, yellow vegetables, etc.). At ages exceeding 45 years, the best advice is to undergo periodic checks. This seems to be one of the most important factors in preventing the onset of this disease.

At ages over thirty years it is advisable to get regular specialist checkups. These visits are especially important for the prevention of various prostate diseases in patients aged fifty or older.

Along with the urological visit, PSA blood dosage is also important at some ages.

PSA is the English abbreviation of a substance produced by the prostate, the Prostate Specific Antigen, which delays the coagulation and drying out of the seminal fluid after it has been ejaculated. Most of the PSA is ejaculated with semen but a small amount pours into the blood where it can then be tested. So PSA is also present in the blood of people who don't have prostate cancer.

PSA in the blood tends to increase with age, so it is normal that for people sixty years and older the amount of this substance is higher than that of a young person. This is because the prostate of older persons is generally larger and therefore has a greater number of glandular structures that produce PSA.

The PSA in the blood still tends to increase when the prostate glands are more active than usual or there are pathological conditions present. For example, the PSA increases, albeit shortly, after sexual intercourse or after a urological visit followed by a rectal examination. Its increase does not necessarily indicate that there is a prostate tumor. On the contrary, very frequently this occurs even in the absence of a cancerous disease.

Finally, it should be remembered that PSA is not only a chemical substance, but a number of similar substances. The proportion of one of these components, called free PSA, may vary in the case of cancer, and therefore the amount of it may be helpful in confirming whether or not there is a cancerous disease.

Since prostate cancer is more frequent in the elderly, an annual PSA test is recommended for people aged 45 to 50. If the PSA has increased, the specialist will recommend the most targeted and appropriate examinations.

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